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Result : Searchterm 'Mammography' found in 4 terms [] and 12 definitions []
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Mammography
 
Mammography is a diagnostic imaging procedure of the breast to detect and evaluate breast disease. Mammography is widely used as a screening method and plays a key role in early breast cancer detection.
The screening mammography is used to detect breast changes in women who have no signs or symptoms or noticed breast abnormalities. The goal is to detect a breast tumor before any clinical signs are observable.
A diagnostic mammography is used to investigate suspicious breast changes, such as a breast lump, an unusual skin appearance, breast pain, nipple thickening or nipple discharge.
A breast screening or standard mammography requires two mammograms from different angles of each breast including craniocaudal view and mediolateral view. Additional images can be made from other angles or focus on microcalcifications or other suspicious areas.
A mammogram is created by special mammography equipment with long wavelength of the used x-rays. Film-screen mammography is still the most widely used technology, but the state of the art technique is digital mammography. Conventional x-ray equipment was used to produce mammograms until dedicated mammography equipment became available in the late 1960s. Film-screen mammography and xeromammography, introduced in the early 1970s, used lower radiation doses and produced sharper mammograms. The second generation of mammography systems has been introduced in the early 1980s. Chief disadvantages of analog mammography include the labor-intensive handling of the cassettes, relatively slow processing time, the lack of a direct interface to the x-ray system, and no post processing possibilities.
Mammograms of high quality should be done with the lowest radiation dose as possible. Adequate breast compression is important due to shortening of the exposure times, immobilization of the breast, reduction of motion and blurring and prevention of overpenetration by means of equalizing breast thickness.
Further breast imaging procedures include breast ultrasound and breast MRI.
 
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Mammography(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
'This procedure is reviewed by a physician with expertise in the area presented and is further reviewed by committees from the ...'
Thursday, 6 September 2007 by www.radiologyinfo.org    
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Advances in Mammography Have Improved Early Detection of Breast Cancer(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
2003 by www.hkcr.org    
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Xeromammography
 
Xeromammography or xeroradiography is a breast imaging. Xeroradiography uses photoelectric records of x-ray images on a coated metal plate. Xeromammography as distinct from film-screen mammography uses low-energy photon beams, long exposure times and dry chemical developers.
Although xeromammography has sensitivity and specificity comparable with those of a film-screen mammogram, it is not recommended for screening or diagnostic mammography because of maintenance problems and the need for higher breast radiation doses compared with modern low dose mammography equipment.
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Digital Mammography
 
The digital mammography is an electronic imaging procedure of the breast. The number of breast imaging facilities equipped with digital mammography (also called computed radiography mammogram (CRM), CR mammogram) is growing due to a number of advantages.
Digital images can be stored directly in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and allows the printing, enhancement, magnification, or brightness and contrast manipulation for further evaluation. The sensitivity of digital mammography compared to film mammography is better in women with dense breasts, a population at higher risk for breast cancer, due to these post processing possibilities.
'The American College of Radiology's (ACR) Imaging Network found that digital mammography detected up to 28 percent more cancers than film-screen mammography in women age 50 and younger, premenopausal and perimenopausal women, and women with dense breasts, as reported in October 2005 in the New England Journal of Medicine.'

Advantages of digital mammography:
point Faster image acquisition;
point shorter examination time;
point improved contrast between dense and non-dense breast tissue;
point under or over x-ray exposure can be corrected without repeated mammograms;
point post processing of breast images for more accurate detection of breast cancer;
point Easy storage and transmission over phone lines or a network.
Existing mammography equipment can be converted to 'digital' operation, which allows cost savings compared to integrated digital mammography systems.
See also Breast MRI.

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Computed radiographyOpen this link in a new window
'Computed Radiography (CR) uses very similar equipment to conventional radiography except that in place of a film to create the ...'
by en.wikipedia.org    
Digital Applications of Radiography(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
'Conventional radiography with film is superior to other NDT methods in many different applications as a picture tells a thousand ...'
Wednesday, 30 November 2005 by www.ndt.net    
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Artifacts in computed radiography(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
'Computed radiography offers many advantages over the conventional radiography. With new technological breakthroughs and the ...'
by www.hkcem.com    
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Mammography Quality Standards Act
 
The mammography quality standards act (MQSA) was established in 1994 and commit all mammography facilities in the United States to be accredited by an approved body and undergo annual inspections by state or federal inspectors. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for implementing MQSA and to develop national mammography regulations.
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Breast Imaging
 
Breast imaging methods include mammography (mammogram), ultrasound, breast MRI, positron emission tomography, xeromammography, diaphanography and thermography.
Mammography is widely used as a screening method and diagnostic tool for breast cancer detection or evaluation of breast disease. Digital mammography takes multiple thin digital image 'slices' through the breast, which provides higher potential to see a small mass within dense tissue. The mammography quality standards act guarantees a high image quality.
Breast ultrasound (also called ultrasonography) should only be used as an additional imaging modality to evaluate specific breast abnormalities, especially to differentiate cystic from solid masses. Ultrasound is also used to guide needle breast biopsies.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful for breast MRI screening in cases of high cancer risk. In addition, multifocal breast cancer can be missed by standard practice mammography and can be early detected with breast MRI.

• View the NEWS results for 'Breast Imaging' (8).Open this link in a new window. 


  Further Reading:
  Basics:
Advances in Mammography Have Improved Early Detection of Breast Cancer(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
2003 by www.hkcr.org    
Breast CT promises low dose, high contrastOpen this link in a new window
'A European research collaboration has detailed a new X-ray technique that it's claimed could one day help doctors detect early ...'
Wednesday, 24 September 2008 
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Diaphanography in the diagnosis of breast cancerOpen this link in a new window
by radiology.rsnajnls.org    
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)Open this link in a new window
'Although breast cancer has been a human illness for thousands of years, ductal carcinoma in situ or DCIS (also known as ...'
by www.dcis.info    
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