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X-Ray Tube
 
X-ray tubes are devices for the production of x-rays. X-ray tubes consist of an evacuated glass vessel and two electrodes. An electrical current with very high voltage passes across the tube and accelerates electrons emitted by thermionic emission from a tungsten filament (cathode also called electron gun) towards the anode target. The electrons collide with the anode and this deceleration generates x-rays (bremsstrahlung).
The high vacuum allows the electron beam an unimpeded passage. The electron beam heats the anode (usually copper), which is cooled by water to prevent melting. A copper target emits x-rays with a characteristic wavelength. Other used metals soften or harden the x-ray beam.
The x-rays pass through a very thin beryllium (Be) foil. This beryllium window absorbs a high amount of the elastically scattered electrons (produced by the target) and allows the radiation to get out of the tube without substantial absorption.
In conventional x-ray tubes, the anode is also the target. In nanofocus and microfocus x-ray tubes, the electron beam is transmitted through a hole in the anode where it is then focused onto a small spot on the target.
See also X-Ray Tube Housing, Fine Focus X-Ray Tube, Transformer, Diode, Digital to Analog Converter and Angular Response.
 
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  Further Reading:
  Basics:
The X-ray Tube(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
by faculty.mwsu.edu    
  News & More:
How to maximize x-ray tube lifeOpen this link in a new window
by www.e-radiography.net    
The Rotating Anode X-Ray Tube(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
'The rotating Anode tube assemble is a complex piece of electro-mechanical engineering comprising of around 350 parts taking 150 ...'
by www.e-radiography.net    
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X-Ray Tube Housing
 
The x-ray tube housing is a cover for x-ray tubes to prevent leakage radiation to exceed specified limits. X-ray tube housings can be open or sealed.
The maximum permitted radiation measured at a distance of 1 m from the source is 0.876 mGy air kerma (100 mR exposure) in 1 h when the x-ray tube is operated at its maximum continuous rated current for the maximum rated tube potential.
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Fine Focus X-Ray Tube
 
A fine focus x-ray tube contains a focal spot smaller than 0.5 millimeters.
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CT Scanner
 
A computed tomography (CT) scanner is used to create cross-sectional slices of different objects. The medical version of CT system scans the human body for tumors or other abnormalities, other versions are used for non-destructive testing in the industry.
The CT imaging system includes the moveable gantry and patient table or couch. The gantry is a frame that contains the x-ray source, collimators, filters, detectors, a data acquisition system (DAS), rotational components including slip ring systems and all associated electronics. The x-ray tube and detector system are mounted opposite each other, allowing a rapid and synchronous rotation around the patient table.
In older CT scanners a small generator supplied power to the x-ray tube and the rotational components via cables for operation. Up to the 4th generation the CT tube and detectors rotate together around the patient for each slice. CT systems with slip ring technology (the x-ray tube rotates around a stationary ring of detectors) operate without cables and provides continuous rotation of the gantry components without interference of cables. Spiral CT scanners work with a continuous table movement while the x-ray tube is rotating around the patient.

Overview about CT scanner generations:
point 1st generation has a pencil beam and one detector;
point 2nd generation has a narrow fan beam and multiple detectors;
point 3rd generation has a wide fan beam;
point 4th generation is equipped with a detector ring;
point 5th generation is the electron beam tomography CT
point 6th generation is the helical (or spiral) CT scanner;
point 7th generation is the multi-detector row CT.


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  Further Reading:
  Basics:
X-ray CT(.ppt)Open this link in a new window
by www.impactscan.org    
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Milliampere
 
(mA): 10-3 ampere. In radiography, the current flow from the cathode to the anode in the x-ray tube is measured in milliampere. This current regulates the radiation intensity emitted by the x-ray tube.
See X-Ray Tube.

• View the NEWS results for 'Milliampere' (1).Open this link in a new window. 
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